The book considers the role of translation in the reformation of Russia along Western European lines in the eighteenth century. Translation is presented as a key social-systemic factor in the dynamics of the relationship between the system and its environment — between Russia and Western Europe. The author draws on contemporary historiography and social theory, primarily Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory, but also concepts of other sociologists and historians, such as Gumilev, Bourdieu, Habermas, Jameson, amongst others. This allows the author to conduct a comprehensive analysis of social involvements of translation. Importantly, this case study aspires to pave the way for research of the social role of translation of universal validity.