This volume provides a comprehensive overview of various Eastern European traditions of thought on the subject of translation as well as the discipline of Translation Studies. It sheds a light on how these traditions developed, how they are related to and how they differ from Western traditions. The volume shows nationally-framed histories of translation and Translation Studies and presents Eastern European pioneers and trailblazing thinkers in the discipline. This collection of articles, however, also shows that it is at times hard or even impossible to draw the line between theoretical and/or scientific thinking and pre-theoretical and/or pre-scientific thinking on translation. Furthermore, it shows that our discipline’s beginnings, which are supposedly rooted in Western scholarship, may have to be rethought and, consequently, rewritten.